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Dalhousie survey: Tipping has ‘oppressive’ roots

The survey’s authors “deconstruct tipping as an inherited artifact of colonialist ideals and power structures…within the realm of servitude with a troubling history of racial oppression.”




Tipping is a relic of oppressive colonialism, say researchers at Dalhousie University in Halifax.

Angus Reid surveyed 990 Canadians online on behalf of the university’s agri-food lab to look at how the pandemic changed attitudes towards tipping.

The study was co-ordinated by Janet Music, with assistance from Research Associate Poppy Nicolette Riddle under the direction of Agri-Food Analytics Lab Director Sylvain Charlebois.

In a press release, the authors say they examined the “social norm” of tipping out of “concern for those working in an industry hard-hit by the pandemic” as it looks to return to normal. Simultaneously, decolonial, racial and gender equity actions across Canada present a unique opportunity to question what we want to return to.”

The authors say tipping is all about the “warm glow” caused by “feeling connected with those receiving tips (relatedness), perceiving the impact of tips (competence), and feeling free in making one’s choice to tip (autonomy).”

The authors said this framework “helps us deconstruct tipping as an inherited artifact of colonialist ideals and power structures. While relatedness in tipping provides us with social rewards, it does so within the realm of servitude with a troubling history of racial oppression. Competence, or perceiving the impact of tipping on those receiving tips, relies upon assumed power of those with money and the assumption of the other being in need. Autonomy, or the feeling that there is free choice in tipping amounts, contributes most harmfully by placing financial stability in the hands of others as optional, and dependent upon their goodwill. Issues of class, race, gender and sexuality all come into play and have been studied in other publications.”

The Western Standard asked Riddle what decolonialist tipping might look like, but she declined to guess.

“As a white, privileged settler — a recent settler from the US at that —I have not lived and do not fully understand the experience of those that live with the impact of colonial attitudes or policies,” Riddle said.

“As we move our research forward, we will need to include those perspectives in order begin creating a vision of what change might look like. I do bring the perspective of having worked in food service briefly and as a 2SLGBTQ+ person, so in time I can contribute from this perspective. However, we still need more research to fully understand the issues facing restaurants and how tipping is contributing to issues of revenue control, equality in wages, staff rivalry, discrimination in all forms, career management and sexual harassment.”

The idea of banning tips by including them in service charges or worker’s regular pay was supported by 37% of respondents and opposed by 32%.

Riddle said some survey results surprised her.

“The number of people that feel tipping is significant – 37% report feeling happy when tipping and 20% plan on tipping more. Also, that 32% are against the practice of tipping, but they still respond to the social pressure and tip expected amounts, (averaging just over 15%). This suggests that tipping as a social norm is deeply ingrained in our culture,” she said.

Canadians disagree what purpose tipping serves. A plurality (34%) think it motivates workers, 30% feel that it makes the job worthwhile, 19% say that it should be regulated, and 17% want it banned. Only 6% of respondents’ households depend on tip-based income.

Nearly 56% felt tips motivated workers to do better, and 27% felt their tips made a big difference to recipients. On suggested tipping rates, 53% follow their own formula, 18% appreciate and follow this practice, 5% notice but exceed the suggested amount, while 27% hate the suggestions.

Most respondents feel tipping is an act of generosity (53.4%) versus an obligation (46.6%).

Almost half of Canadians (48%) feel more pressure to tip than before the pandemic, 7% feel less pressure, 31% do not perceive any change, and 13% don’t care what society expects.

Most Canadians (71%) do not anticipate changing their behaviors, but 20% anticipate tipping more than they did prior to COVID-19. Of these, 58% say tipping makes them feel happy.

Restaurants Canada reported 902,300 people were employed at restaurants in February, still more than 300,000 jobs less than pre-pandemic levels. Prior to the pandemic, Canadians saved an average of 1.4% of personal disposable income, which is less than a normal tip.

Harding is a Western Standard correspondent based in Saskatchewan

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1 Comment

1 Comment

  1. Left Coast

    June 25, 2021 at 11:40 am

    ““As a white, privileged settler — a recent settler from the US at that —I have not lived and do not fully understand the experience of those that live with the impact of colonial attitudes or policies,” Riddle said.”

    Riddle is a certifiable Nut-Bar . . . subscribing to the insane CR Theory . . . key word being “Theory”. A fantasy of Marxist nonsense conjured up in far-left Universities.

    Parents are waking up today at the insanity pushed on their children in public schools and Universities.

    Tipping is a reward for efficient & thoughtful service . . . period!

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BC drops more COVID fines under pressure from Justice Centre

On Tuesday, the JCCF announced that five more “public health” tickets issued to its clients have been dropped by Crown Prosecutors in BC.




BC officials have dropped five more COVID-19 related tickets in response to pressure from the Justice Centre.

The Justice Centre for Constitutional Freedoms (JCCF) is funded by voluntary donations and represents its clients free of charge.

On Tuesday, the JCCF announced five more “public health” tickets issued to its clients have been dropped by Crown prosecutors in BC.

Three tickets totalling $6,900 were issued to a health care worker named Nadine Podmoroff, who organized three outdoor events in Castlegar and Nelson.

Podmoroff said, according to JCCF, that leading up to the Dec. 21, 2020 event she was in contact with Castlegar RCMP who gave her the green light to proceed without being ticketed as long as the laws were followed.

Policed “monitored the event throughout and said we behaved peacefully,” said Podmoroff, who added RCMP did not issue any tickets until two days after the event when they arrived at her home and issued a ticket of $2,300.

Podmoroff organized two additional outdoor rallies shortly after, for which she was also ticketed.

JCCF filed a Notice of Constitutional Question on Nov. 5, 2021, challenging the validity of the tickets issued to Podmoroff. On Nov. 15, 2021, the Crown dropped two tickets challenged by the notice, as well as an additional ticket issued to an unnamed individual who spoke at a protest with Podmoroff.

Podmoroff has one remaining ticket from Dec. 21, 2020 which JCCF is attempting to have dropped.

“The scientific data unequivocally shows outdoor public gatherings are not, and never were, a public health risk,” said Jay Cameron, litigation director at JCCF.

Additional tickets issued to JCCF’s clients for protesting or holding in person religious services have also been recently dropped in BC, according to the organization, which is in the process of having dozens of more tickets dropped in the province — such as a church in Fort St. John that was fined for recording a Zoom service in its building with staff present.

“The Justice Centre will continue to defend BC citizens against the Government’s unjust violation of their Charter rights,” said Cameron.

BC-based non-profit the Canadian Society for the Advancement of Science in Public Policy’s (CSASPP) Executive Director, Kip Warner, among others involved in combating state overreach, speaks highly of the JCCF.

“The problems Canadians are facing are across the country and are best met with areas of responsibility allocated to different competent campaigns,” Warner told the Western Standard.

“For that reason Alberta’s JCCF and BC’s CSASPP have a complimentary, productive, and professional working relationship.”

Reid Small is a BC-based reporter for the Western Standard

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Liberals axe mandatory minimum sentences for many firearms crimes

“Conservatives believe that serious, violent offences that are committed with firearms deserve mandatory prison time. It’s shameful that the Liberals think we should be weakening firearms laws in Canada,” said Rob Moore in a statement.




The Liberal government is moving again to eliminate the mandatory minimum prison (MMPs) times handed to people convicted of some gun crimes.

A proposed Liberal bill would affect 14 Criminal Code sections and six drug-related offences.

The gun offences that would see MMPs dropped include possessing a restricted firearm with ammunition, weapons trafficking, discharging a firearm while committing an offence, reckless discharge of a firearm, and extortion and robbery with a firearm.

It follows a similar bill the party introduced February that died without being passed when the election was called in August.

It would remove MMPs from 13 firearms offences and one for a tobacco offence.

MMPs would remain for murder, treason, impaired driving and sexual offences, as well as a some firearms offences.

“With Bill C-5, we are turning the page on the policy of the former government. It is a policy that in the end did not discourage crime or make our justice system more efficient or more fair,” Justice Minister David Lametti said.

“All the approach did was imprison too many indigenous, black and marginalized Canadians.

“Indigenous adults represent 5% of the general population but account for 30% of federally incarcerated inmates. That’s double where it was 20 years ago.”

The legislation also would repeal MMPs for all six offences to which they apply under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, including possession, trafficking and the production of substances classified under Schedules 1 and 2 of the act.

“This measure will allow for more effective rehabilitation and integration by allowing individuals to keep their job, to care for their children or family members or to seek counselling or treatment for substance and addictions abuse,” Lametti said. 

“Think about your own kids. Perhaps they got into trouble at some point with the law. I bet you would want to give them the benefit of the doubt or a second chance if they messed up. Well, it is a lot harder to get a second chance the way things are now.

“And that’s particularly true if you are a young person who happens to be indigenous or black.”

Conservative justice critic Rob Moore was less than pleased with the proposal.

“Conservatives believe that serious, violent offences committed with firearms deserve mandatory prison time. It’s shameful that the Liberals think we should be weakening firearms laws in Canada,” said Moore in a statement.

“This bill is soft on crime and puts communities and victims at risk.”

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Indigenous leaders welcome ‘Elders Wisdom Panels’ recommended by Allan Inquiry

Stephen Buffalo, President & CEO of Indian Resource Council, wants the premier to formally accept the Allan report in the legislature and Energy Minister Savage to give a mandate to elders panels.




Indigenous leaders are calling on the Alberta government to implement vital First Nations recommendations from the Allan Inquiry’s Final Report, including the establishment of Elders Wisdom Panels.

The statements were issued in a press release by the Indian Resource Council which was founded in 1987 by chiefs following the recommendation of a task force that was established to study the role of the Crown in the management of First Nations oil and natural gas resources.

The IRC now represents more than 155 oil and gas producing First Nations across Canada.

“Commissioner Steve Allan has defined a vital instrument — Elders Wisdom Panels — for opening a novel path to relationship development, establishing common purpose and the cooperative and constructive economic foundations for reconciliation,” said Stephen Buffalo president and CEO of IRC.

“We call upon Premier Jason Kenney to advance a motion of acceptance in the Alberta Legislature of the Allan Inquiry Final Report’s six recommendations. Energy Minister Sonya Savage should then work with Chief Littlechild and other respected elders to formulate the terms and mandate for Elders Wisdom Panels, including the implementation of regulations that require Elders Wisdom Panels as constructive intermediators for all substantive resource developments.”

In his report, Steve Allan noted that $102 million had gone from nine U.S. foundations to indigenous environmental initiatives from 2003 through 2019.

Allan said elders panels could “breach the divide, not only within and between First Nations communities, but also to advance greater understanding among all Canadians of First Nations issues, as well as the responsible stewardship of Canada’s natural resources.” 

Bearspaw First Nation, part of the Stoney-Nakoda Nation in Alberta, has been involved in resource development and natural gas for nearly 70 years. Chief Darcy Dixon believes the Allan report and elders panels could facilitate more development.

“The Allan Inquiry provides solid recommendations for resolution of conflicts among indigenous groups, energy developers, environmental groups and governments. For too long we have been handicapped by the Indian Act and a government bureaucracy that restricts our ability to create strong economies for ourselves and to become true business partners. Elders Wisdom Panels would certainly help bring about mutually beneficial agreements, as well as a greater level of mutual understanding,” he said.

Former Grand Chief Wilton J. Littlechild, a lawyer and one of three commissioners of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, also gave his endorsement.

“Commissioner Steve Allan’s recommendations must not be ignored,” said Littlechild, who added the panels could help Canada fulfill its obligations under the United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

The Ermineskin Cree Nation, located 80 kilometers south of Edmonton, has been involved in oil and gas for more than 60 years from the Bonnie Glen Field at Pigeon Lake. Chief Randy Ermieskin believes economic development and reconciliation go together.

“Reconciliation begins when indigenous people grow their own economies for financial security and stability and have meaningful participation in the greater Canadian and international marketplace. First Nations themselves also need to come together to joint venture and partner in large projects, many of which are in the energy sector. We are a force that is not going away,” said Ermineskin.

Mac Van Wielingen, Founder of ARC Financial Corp and incoming chair of the Business Council of Alberta, believes the indigenous aspects of the “large and comprehensive” Allan report have received too little attention.

“The public discussion to date has focused narrowly on foreign funding of opposition to Canadian oil and gas development… [but] the Allan Inquiry Final Report has many other constructive recommendations,” said Van Wielingen.

“Canada’s resource sector is ideally placed to accelerate indigenous reconciliation through partnership, education, training and economic development that advance multi-generational self-reliance and shared prosperity. Elders Wisdom Panels will help bridge the opportunity gaps and build the structural conditions for economic and social sustainability among all Canadians.”

Harding is a Western Standard contributor based in Saskatchewan

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